Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a bilateral, usually seasonally recurrent, allergic inflammation of the conjunctiva, characterized by limbal gelatinous hypertrophy and/or upper tarsal giant conjunctival papillae.
The Vernal keratoconjunctivitis market report provides current treatment practices, emerging drugs, Vernal keratoconjunctivitis market share of the individual therapies, current and forecasted Vernal keratoconjunctivitis market Size from 2017 to 2030 segmented by seven major markets. The Report also covers current Vernal keratoconjunctivitis treatment practice/algorithm, market drivers, market barriers and unmet medical needs to curate best of the opportunities and assesses the underlying potential of the market.
Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis Market Insight
The market size of Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) in total markets in 2017 was USD 307.89 million
Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis Market Drivers
- Rise in the Prevalence
- Disease awareness and diagnosis
- Research and development
Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis Market Barriers
- Weak emerging drug pipeline
- Diagnostic Barriers
- Limited approved therapies
Vernal keratoconjunctivitis Market Outlook
Treatment of VKC requires multiple approaches that include conservative measures and pharmacologic treatment. Patients and parents should be made aware of the prolonged duration of disease, its chronic evolution, and possible complications. Treatment should be based on the duration and frequency of symptoms and the severity of corneal involvement.
Currently available topical drugs for allergic conjunctivitis belong to several pharmacologic classes, such as vasoconstrictors, antihistamines, mast cell stabilizers, ‘dual-acting’ agents (with antihistaminic and mast cell stabilizing properties), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, corticosteroids, and immunosuppressive drugs.
Mast cell stabilizers are the first-line drugs for VKC. Several studies have demonstrated the efficacy of 2% and 4% sodium cromoglicate (DSCG, cromolyn), nedocromil sodium 2%, lodoxamide tromethamine 0.1%, and spaglumic acid 4%.
Ocular drugs with antihistaminic activity may offer therapeutic advantages to patients with allergic conjunctivitis, including VKC, by inhibiting proinflammatory cytokine secretion from conjunctival epithelial cells. The first-generation antihistamines pheniramine and antazoline have a long safety record. The newer antihistamines such as levocabastine hydrochloride 0.5% and emedastine difumarate 0.05% have a longer duration of action (4–6 h) and are better tolerated than their predecessors.
A meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials in VKC showed a large number of studies evaluated the efficacy of common anti-allergic eye drops (levocabastine, lodoxamide, mipragoside, N-acetyl aspartyl glutamic acid, nedocromil sodium, DCG). Among these, lodoxamide appeared to be the most effective.
Papilock mini and Verkazia both produced by Santen (Osaka, Japan) are specifically indicated for the treatment of VKC.
Generally, NSAIDs employed in ocular allergy treatment inhibit both cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 enzymes. Also, Ketorolac, diclofenac and pranoprofen may be valid alternatives to steroids, since they have a proven effect on itching, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression, and tear tryptase levels. Indomethacin 1%, ketorolac 0.5%, and diclofenac 0.1% have shown effectiveness in the treatment of VKC.
Aspirin 0.5–1 g/day has been shown as a steroid-sparing factor in the treatment of VKC; however, it should be used with caution because of the well-known possible side effects.
In severe cases, systemic treatment with T-lymphocyte signals transduction inhibitors such as Cyclosporine A or tacrolimus may ameliorate both the dermatologic and ocular manifestations in critical patients who are refractory to conventional treatment.
Omalizumab, an anti-IgE recombinant, humanized, non-anaphylactogenic antibody, directed against the receptor-binding domain of IgE, may be used in VKC patients with high levels of total serum IgE. Calcineurin inhibitors are off-label treatments in the European Union.
As discussed, the current treatment for VKC depends solely on the use of antihistamines, mast cell inhibitors, and several other classes. But till now the treatment is only supportive and is not that effective. But due to the advancement of technology and a better understanding of the disease, several companies are trying to modify the treatment of VKC.
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Table of contents
1. Key Insights
2. Executive Summary of Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC)
3. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC): Market Overview at a Glance
3.1. Total Market Share (%) Distribution of VKC in 2017
3.2. Total Market Share (%) Distribution of VKC in 2030
4. Disease Background and Overview: Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC
5. Case Report
6. Epidemiology and Patient Population
7. United States Epidemiology
8. EU5 Epidemiology
8.1. Assumptions and Rationale
8.2. Germany Epidemiology
8.3. France Epidemiology
8.4. Italy Epidemiology
8.5. Spain Epidemiology
8.6. United Kingdom Epidemiology
9. Japan Epidemiology
10. MEA Region Epidemiology
10.1. Assumptions and Rationale
10.2.Saudi Arabia Epidemiology
11. China Epidemiology
12. Russia Epidemiology
13. Current Treatment and Medical Practices
13.1. Treatment of VKC
13.2. Practical management of VKC
13.3. Treatment Guidelines
14. Unmet Needs
15. Marketed Drugs
15.1. Verkazia/Verkacia: Santen
15.2. Lodoxamide/Alomide: Novartis Pharmaceuticals/Alcon
15.3. Talymus/Tacrolimus: Senju Pharmaceutical
16. Emerging Drugs
16.1. Antolimab (AK002): Allakos
16.2. Bertilimumab/iCo-008: iCo Therapeutics
16.3. Nomacopan: Akari Therapeutics
17. Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC): 7MM Market Analysis
18. United States
19. EU-5 countries
19.1.Germany Market Size
19.2.France Market Size
19.3.Italy Market Size
19.4.Spain Market Size
19.5.United Kingdom Market Size
20.1. Japan Market Size
21. MEA countries Market Outlook
21.1.Saudi Arabia Market Size
21.2.Egypt Market Size
22. China: Market Outlook
22.1. China Market Size
23. Russia Market Outlook
23.1. Russia Market Size
24. Market Drivers
25. Market Barriers
26. Reimbursement and Market Access
27. SWOT Analysis
28. KOL Views
30. DelveInsight Capabilities
32. About DelveInsight
Company Name: DelveInsight
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