The lithium ion battery is widely used in electric vehicles (EV). The battery degradation is the key sci- entiﬁc problem in battery research. The battery aging limits its energy storage and power output capability, as well as the performance of the EV including the cost and life span. Therefore, a compre- hensive review on the key issues of the battery degradation among the whole life cycle is provided in this paper. Firstly, the battery internal aging mechanisms are reviewed considering different anode and cathode materials for better understanding the battery fade characteristic. Then, to get better life performance, the inﬂuence factors affecting battery life are discussed in detail from the perspectives of design, production and application. Finally, considering the difference between the cell and system, the battery system degradation mechanism is discussed.
The lithium-ion battery is one of the most commonly used power sources in the new energy vehicles since its characteristics of high energy density, high power density, low self-discharge rate, etc. However, the battery life could barely satisfy the demands of users, restricting the further development of electric vehicles. So, as shown in the battery aging mechanism and the impact of battery degradation should be considered to optimize the battery design and management.
From the perspective of the battery design, in the cell level, the battery aging mechanism and the degradation model need to be studied, especially the inﬂuence of the battery key parameters on the battery on battery life and other key characteristics parameters such as energy density and power density needs to be discussed.
Lithium ion batteries are very complicated systems with many different degradation mechanisms. The research on the battery degradation is very important. The battery aging mechanism and its modeling is the key scientiﬁc problem in the battery research area. The capacity and power fade may be caused from multiple and complex side reactions. And the side reactions may be inﬂuenced by many factors including the battery design, production and the way to use the battery. This article provides a comprehensive review on the battery degradation along the whole cycle life.
However, the battery degradation problems still need further research, especially for the high energy density battery with new chemistry including the Ni-rich cathode, Li-rich cathode, lithium sulfur battery, all solid state battery, and so on.
Junlee think that the battery aging effects could be considered as capacity fade and power fade, and the internal aging mode could be classiﬁed as LAM, LLI, LE and RI. The related internal side reactions have been summarized according to different anode and cathode. Those side reactions may be directly influenced by various factors including the battery design, production and application. To enlarge the life expectancy, the battery need to be carefully designed. The model based optimization method could be used to reduce the internal side reactions. And during production, the battery quality should be guaranteed, especially the homogeneity in each process is very important and should be simultaneously controlled. While using the battery, the temperature and voltage need to be well controlled in the optimal working range by design of the vehicle, battery pack, TMS and BMS algorithm. And the charging current need to be carefully controlled based on the internal anode potential to avoid the lithium plating side reactions.
And the battery system degradation is complicated, which is determined by the aging of single cells and the evolution of the system consistency. The electric quantity – capacity scatter diagram could be used to visually analyze the battery system state. Optimal design of the cell pressure, battery balancing algorithm could help to enlarge the system’s life.
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