The Complete Book on Emulsifiers with Uses, Formulae and Processes

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The book “The Complete Book on Emulsifiers with Uses, Formulae and Processes” contains manufacturing processes of various types of emulsifiers which have applications in different industries.  Emulsifier is an organic compound that encompasses in the same molecule two dissimilar structural groups e.g. water soluble and a water insoluble moiety. It is the ingredient which binds the water and oil in a cream or lotion together permanently. Basic fundamentals of this book are characteristics and application of emulsifiers, wetting and detergent structures in emulsifier, effect of surfactant on the properties of solutions, wetting characteristics of emulsifiers, formulated emulsifiers, non surfactant functional additives, inert fillers, functional surfactant additives, uses of emulsifiers, household and personal products, industrial uses of emulsifier, anionic surfactants, non ionic surfactants, cationic, amphoteric and enzyme, alkylolamides, vinylarene polymers, alkyl sulfates, ethoxylation processes, application of emulsifiers, etc. The characteristic of making healthier products similar in taste to fat containing versions has enabled emulsifiers in gaining widespread acceptance in the market. The global food industry is also witnessing increase in demand for multipurpose emulsifiers that perform functions of both stabilization and emulsification.  

Contents of Book: 

1. Characteristics and Application of 
Emulsifiers     
Introduction, Classification of Emulsifiers,                       
Solubility & Surface Activity of Emulsifi-
ers, Wetting and Detergent Strucures in 
Emulsifier, Effect of Surfacant on the Pro- perties of Solutions, Wetting Charcteristics of Emulsifiers, Micellar Sol- uilization of Emulsifiers, Formulated Emulsifiers, Non- Surfactant Functional Additives, Inert Fill- ers, Functional Surfactant Additives, Uses of Emulsifiers, Household and Personal Products, Industrial Uses.

2. Industrial Uses of Emulsifier 
Agriculture, Building and Construction, Elastomers and Plastics, Food and Beve- ra ges, Industrial Cleaning, Leather, Metals, Paper, Paints and Protective Coatings, Pe- troleum Production and Products, Textiles, Biodegradable Emulsifiers and Water Poll- ution, Biodegradation, Water Pollution, Re- cent Trends.

3. Anionic Surfactants       
Introduction,Carboxylates, Soap, N-Acyls- arcosinates, Acylated Protein Hydrolysates, Sulfonates, Alkyl benzene Sulfonates, Pet- roleum Sulfonates, Dialkyl Sulfosuccinates, Naphthalene Sulfonates, N-acyl-N-alkyl- taurates, 2-Sulfoethyl Es-ters of Fatty Acids, Olefin Sulphonates, Sulfates & Sulfated fates (Sulfated Alcohols), Sulfated Natural Fats and Oils,Sulfated Alkanolamides, Sulfated     Esters, Ethoxylated and Sulfated Alkyl 
phenols, Ethoxylated and Sulfated Alco- hols, Phosphate Esters.

4. Non-Ionic Surfactants                 
Introduction, Polyoxyethylene Surfactants, 
Ethoxylated Alkyl Phenols, Eth -oxylated 
Aliphatic Alcohols, Carboxylic Esters, Gl-
ycerol Esters, Polyethylene Glycol Esters, 
Anhydrosorbitol Esters, Ethoxylated Anh-
ydrosorbitol Esters, Glycol Esters of Fatty 
Acids, Ethoxylated Natural Fats, Oils and 
Waxes, Carboxylic Amides, Diethanolami- ne Condensates, Monoalkanolamine Co- ndensates, Poly- oxyethylene Fatty Acids Amides, Poly- alkylene Oxide Block Cop- olymers, Poly- oxypropylene-Polyoxyeth- ylene Derivatives, Organo Silicones Deri- vatives.

5. Cationic, Amphoteric and Enzyme 
Detergents   
Cationic Detergents, Amines not containing Oxygen, Oxygen— Containing Amines, 
Except Amides, Amine Oxides, Polyoxy e-
thylene Alkyl and Alicyclic Amines, 2-Alkyl- 1-(hydroxy- ethyl)-2-imidazolines, N, N, N’ N’
-Tetrakis-substituted Ethylen ediamines, Other 
Miscellaneous Cationic Surfactants, Amines Having Amide Linkages, Quaternary Ammon- ium Salts, Amphoteric Surfactants, Enzyme Detergents.

6. Sulfonated Oils                 
Historical Background, Chemistry of Sulfation 
    and Sulfonation, Applications of Sulfonated Oils,
Manufacture of Sulfonated Oils, Sulfation, Sulfonation, Sulfation of individual Oils, Characteristics and Analysis of Sulfonated Sulfated Oils.

7. Alkylolamides               
Introduction, Alkylolamides in Shampoo Formulations, Chemistery of the Alkylola- mides, Mono-Alkylolamides, Di-Alkylola- mides, Pure Di-Alkyl olamides, Phosphox- ylated Alkylolamides, Sulphated Alkylola- mides, Foam Stabilization, Manufacture of Alkylol- amides, Coconut Fatty Acid Die thanolamide, Lauric Acid Dieth anolamide, Oleic Acid Monoethan olamide, Stearic Acid Mono ethanolamide.

8. Vinylarene Polymers                               
Monomers, Anionic Polymerization, Polymer 
Reactions, Stereoregular Polymerization, Ca- tionic Polymerization, Free-Radical Polymeri- zation, Polymer Properties, Electrical Proper- ties, Utility and Application.

9. N-Acyl-N-Alkyltaurates             
Introduction, Applications of Igepon T Produ- cts, Future of Igepons, Manufacture of Igepon T, Raw Materials, Oleic Acid Chloride, Igepon T Gel, Igepon T Powder, Chemical Control,Ut- ilities, Materials of Construction. 

10. Vinylamine Polymers             
Preparation, Polymerization Followed by Hy- drolysis, Polymerization Followed by Reduc- tion, Hofmann Degradation of Poly(acrylamide), Polymerization Kinetics, Copolymers of Vinyl-,
Amine Properties, Chemical Reactions of Poly
(vinyl-mine), Uses.

11.   Alkyl Sulfates
Introduction, Manufacture of Alcohols, Pro- perties and Performance Characteristics of Alkyl Sulfates, Krafft Point, Critical Micelle Concentration, Surface and Interfacial Tens- ions, Wetting Time, Foam Height, Detergen- cy, Dishwashing Test, Emulsion Stability, M- anufacture of Alkyl Sulfates, Sulfation with Chlorosulfonic Acid, Sulfation with Sulfuric Acid, Sulfation with Sulfur Trioxide, Manuf- acture of Alkyl Sulfated on Large Scale, For- mulated Products from Alkyl Sulfates.

12. N-Vinyl Amide Polymers
Monomers, Manufacture, Polymerization, Pr- operties of Poly( vinyl Amides), Other Poly(vi- nyl Amides), Uses, Cosmetics and Toiletries, Textiles and Dyes, Pharmaceuticals, Adhesi- ves, Beverage Clarification, Miscellaneous Uses, 
Specifications and Standards, Analytical and Test Methods, Health and Safety Factors.

13. Olefin Sulfate and Sulfonates
Introduction, Olefin Sulfates, Raw Materials and Product Composition, Olefin Sulfates from Shale Oil, Olefin Sulfate from Wax Cracked Distillates, Sulfation, Neutralization and Hydrolysis, Evaporation, Finishing, Solvent Recovery, Olefin Sulfates, Introduction, Products of Sulfonation, Manufacture of Olefin Sulfonates Introduction, Batch Sulfonation, Continuous
Sulfonation, Sulfonation with Dioxane- SO3 , Characteristics & Surface Active Properties of Olefin Sulfonates, Formulat- ed of Heavy-Duty Detergents with Ole- fin Sulfonates.

14. Ethoxylation Processes   
Introduction, Ethoxylated Alkyl Phenols, Laboratory Method of Preparation, Batch Ethoxylation Unit, Properties of Ethoxyl- ated Alkyl Phenols.

15. Ethoxylated Fatty Alcohols
Introduction, Laboratory Method of Prep- aration, Continuous Ethoxylation Unit, Pro- perties of Ethoxylated Fatty Alcohols, Sol- ubility, Cloud Point, Surface and Interfacial Tension, Detergency, Wetting Properties, Foaming Properties, Emulsifying Properties, Ethoxylated Fatty Acids, Introduction, Manu- facture, Properties of Fatty Acid Ethoxylates, Ethoxylated Fatty Amines, Formulations.

16. Alkyl Phenol Ether Sulfates     
Introduction, Sulfation and Sulfonation, Man- ufacture of Alkyl Phenol Ether Sulfates, Sul- famation, Nonylphenol 4-ethoxy Sulfate, Di- (isohexyl / isoheptyl)phenol Ether Sulfate, Do- decylphenol Ether Sulfate, Sulfation with Sulfur Trioxide, Comparison of Sulfation with Sulfur Trioxide and Sulfamic Acid, Properties and Performance Characteristics of Alkyl Phenol Ether Sulfates.

17.   Alkyl Ether Sulfates       
Introduction, Properties & Performance Char- acteristics of Alkyl Ether Sulfates, Individual
Alkyl Ether Sulfates, Tallow Alcohol Ether Su- lfates, Manufacture of Alkyl Ether Sulfates, Process Development, Manufacture of Alcohol Ether Sulfates, Formulated Products From Alkyl Ether Sulfates.

18. Fatty Amine Oxides
Introduction, Manufacture of Fatty Amine Oxi- des, Routes to Fatty Amines, Amine Oxidation, Commercial Synthesis, Properties and Analysis of Fatty Amine Oxides, Amine Oxide Propert- ies, Analytical Methods, Formulations and Use of Fatty Amine Oxides, Light- Duty Liquids, He- avy Duty Formulations.

19. Bisquaternery and Other Cationic 
Softeners       
Introduction, Preparation of Bisqu- aterneries, 2- Butene-Bridged-Bisquat erneries,Dip-henyloxide- Bridged-Bis- quaterneries, Die- thyleneoxide-Bri- dged- Bisquaterneries, p-Xylylene-Bridged-Bisq- uaterneries,2-Butyne-Bridged-Bis- quaterneries, Performance Evaluation of Softeners, Multiwash Softeners Evaluati- on, Softness Evaluation, Rew- ettability Measurements, Performance Characteri- stics of Bisquaterneries and Other Cationics Soft- eners, Softener Concentration, Fabric Rew- ettab- ility Measurements.

20. Other Miscellaneous Emulsifiers                   

(i)   Alkyl Naphthalene Sulfonates 
Introduction, General Method of Manufacture, Nekal ‘BXG’, Nekal ‘BX’ Extra Strong, Dibutyl Naphthalene Sulfonate, Diamyl Naphthalene Sulfonate.

(ii) Sulfated Alkylolamides
Introduction, Igepon ‘B’ Paste, Igepon ‘C’ Paste, Sodium-N-2-hydroxyethyl-hexa decanamide H Sulfate.

(iii) Sodium B-Sulfoethyl Esters of Fatty Acids
Introduction¬, Manufacture of Igepon A.

(iv) Polyethylene Glycol Fatty Acid Esters
Introduction, Manufacturing Process, Fatty Acid Esters of Sucrose.

(v) N-Acylsarcosinates
Introduction, Manufacture of Sodium N- Oleoylsarcosinate.

(vi) Sulfated Monoglyceride
Introduction, Manufacture.

21. Application of Emulsifiers                       

(i)   Pharmaceutical Emulsions
Introduction, Cod Liver Oil Emulsions, Oint- ments, Beeler’s Base, Washable Ointment Base, Greaseless Base, Ointment Washable Type, Steroidal Emulsion, Aeriflavine Oint- ment, Aluminium Acetate Lotion, Typical Antibiotic, Anesthetic and Anti-Inflammatory Ointment, O/W Type Benzyl Ointment, O/W Boric Acid Ointment, W/O Calamine Cream, W/O Emollient Ointment, Solubilized Hexach- lorophene, O/W Oxyquinoline Sulphate Oint- ment, Penicillin Ointment.

(ii) Rosin and Rubber Emulsion
Rosin Emulsion, PVA Resin Emulsion, Pent- aerythritol Abietate Emulsion, Methyl Meth- acrylate Emulsion, Polystyrene Resin Emulsion,
Polyvinyl Ether Emulsion, Synthetic Rubber Emulsion Polymerization, Chlorinated Rubber Emulsion, Wall Tile Adhesive, Black Industrial Cement, Reclaim Asphalt Dispersion Cement, General Purpose Cement, Rubber Dressing.

(iii)Textile Emulsions 
Antistatic Textile Dressing, Lustre Emulsion for Starching, Rootproofing Emulsion, Textile Soft- eners, Textile Gloss Oil, Yarn Finish, Soluble Textile Oil, Rope Preservative, Synthetic Thread Lubricant, Acetate Rayon Oil, Screen Printing Emulsion, Mineral Oil Emulsion, Rayon Delustering.

(iv) Pesticides Emulsions
Malathion Wettable Powder, Dieldrin Formulation, Lindane Formulation, Ronnel Formulation, Butyl Ester of 2, 4-D Formulation, Fruit Coating Wax Emulsion, Cattle Dips, DDT Formulation, Chlor- dane Formulation, Heptachlor Formulation, Aldrin Formulation, Endrin Emulsion Concentrate.

(v) Food Emulsion
Chocolate Milk, Stabilized, Artificial Cream, Le- mon Oil Emulsion, Transparent Lemon Oil Emul- sion, Orange Emulsion, Bitter Almond Emulsion, Butter Substitute, Mayonnaise, Salad Dressings, Coffee Whitner Liquid, Coffee Whitner (Spray Dried), Ice Cream Mix, Pickle Flavour Emulsion, Starch Paste.

(vi) Emulsions in Paint Industry
Flat Interior Paint, Semigloss White Latex Paint, Gloss Emulsion Paint, Exterior Latex Paint, Exterior White Paint, Interior White Paint, Resin Oil Emulsion.

(vii)Emulsions in Polish Industry
Automobile Polish, ‘Dry Bright’ Floor Polish, Paste Polishes, Mineral Oil Emulsion Polishes, Silicone Polishing Cloth, Paste Type, Automobile Cleaner Polish.

(viii)Leather and Paper Treatment Emulsions
Leather Finishes, Fat Liquors, Leather Dressing,
Shoemaker’s Wax Burnishing Polish, Softner for Leather Goods, Leather Pasting, Coating for Paper, Water Resistant Coating for Paper, Grease Resistant Paper Coating.

(ix) Cutting Oils, Soluble Oils, Miscible Oils
Napthenic Miscible Oils, Cutting Oils, Mold Release Compound.

(x) Cleaners
All Purpose Cleaners, Pine Base Cleaner, 
Hand Dishwashing Detergent, Machine Dish- washing Liquid, Household Heavy Duty Dete- rgent, Household Light Duty Detergent, Fine Fabric Detergent, Hydrogen Peroxide Emulsions, Floor Wax Remover, Rug Cleaner, Shoe Cleaner, Waterless Hand Cleaners, Acid Aluminium Clea- ner, Copper Cleaner, Degreaser Formulation, Light Duty Steam Cleaner, Alkaline Cleaner, Merceriza- tion Formulation, Powdered Caustic Bottle Wash- ing Compound, White Wall Tire Cleaner.

22. Determination of Physical Surface 
    Active Characteristics of Emulsifiers             
Introduction, Physical Characteristics, Density of Powdered Detergents, Apparent Bulk Density, Cup Density, Particle Size of Powdered Deterge- nts, Hand Sieving, Machine Sieving, pH and Alk-
alinity, Free Alkalinity, Cloud Point of Non-ionic Detergents, Viscosity, Surface-Active Properties, Ring Method, Experimental Procedure, Determina- tion of Surface Tension, Determination of Interfac- ial Tension, Calculation of Surface Tension, Calcul- ation of Interfacial Tension, Performance Characte- ristics, Dishwashing Tests, Laundry Evaluation, Split Item Tests, Bundle Test, Foam Tests, Dynamic Foam Test, Pour Foam Test, Wetting Test, Canvas Disc Test, Skein Test.

23. Analysis of Emulsifiers   
Introduction, Separation of Surfactants, Identi-
fication of Components, Anionics, Cationics, Non-ionics, Determination of Surfactants, Total Organic Active Ingredient, Procedure, Correction for Sodium Chloride Content, Anionic Surfactants, Preliminary Estimate of Mol. Wt., Titration with Cationic Surfactants, Prepa raition and Standardiz- ation of Titrant, Titration of Sample, Amine Comp- lexation Method¬, Determination of Alkylaryl Sulf- onates, Determination of Alkylaryl Sulfonates in the Presence of Short Alkyl Chain Sulfonates, et- erniination of Fatty Alcohol Sulfates, Cationic Sur- factants, Determination of Amine Oxides, Non-Ionic Surfactants, Column Techniques, Batch Technique, Tooth Powders, Bath Powders, Light-Duty Liquid Detergent.

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