Scientific Nutritional Health and Global Chronic Disease


In developed and developing world the global epidemic for chronic disease may include many species such as animals and man. Western diets and environmental changes disrupt anti-aging processes that determine species survival that are responsible for malfunction in genes with relevance to mitochondrial apoptosis and accelerated ageing. Science, medicine and biotherapy with relevance to genomic medicine need to consider autoimmune disease as critical factors that may determine species survival relevant to core body temperature and mitochondrial disease in animals and man. Identification of blood tests for mitochondrial defects for the cell’s power house have become of critical importance to the expected diabetes pandemic connected to various organ diseases.

Human survival and the immune system involve a network of cells, tissues and organs that work together to protect the body. An abnormal immune response to the body is called autoimmune disease and is now relevant to the global chronic disease epidemic that involves non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cardiovascular disease, diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases (Figure 1). The body when it involves an abnormal immune response does not stabilize the cell’s powerhouse called the mitochondria and the cell dies in individuals with various chronic diseases in the developing and developed world. Biotherapy to maintain the immune system require interventions that increase the consumption functional foods and bioactive molecules to prevent mitochondrial disease (Figure 1) involved in global chronic disease. In the developing world xenobiotics and bacterial lipopolysaccharides trigger the body’s mitochondria to die with the most sensitive cells in the body such as the brain cells (neurons) heart and kidney cells involved in chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease and neurodegeneration. Nutritional gene therapy and the prevention of toxic protein aggregation are essential to keep the cell alive and this information is now critical to humans and various species to prevent an abnormal immune response involved in accelerated aging and global chronic disease.

The gene-environment interaction now identifies a heat shock gene to be disrupted with effects on various other responsive genes that are sensitive to accelerated mitochondrial apoptosis. This heat shock gene determines species longevity with relevance to senescence and the universality of aging in man and various species. Critical breakthroughs in the fields of diet, pharmacology and immunology are essential for mitochondrial growth linked to body temperature and the prevention of accelerated ageing, diabetes and neurodegenerative disease (Figure 2). Research findings have reported that temperature variations in organisms have marked changes in the cell’s power house and metabolism with higher temperatures associated with increased ageing. The observation that diets with calorie restriction change core body temperature has led to explanations for differences in species longevity.


Biotherapeutics have become of importance to global chronic diseases such as diabetes to prevent the cell’s powerhouse mitochondria to die associated with uncontrolled immune reactions that determine treatment and disease progression. Nutritional interventions with caffeine consumption and Indian spices should be reassessed with relevance to interference with insulin therapy (Figure 3) that has become of major relevance to the global burden of disease progression. Caffeine /Indian spice intake to treat the defective adipose tissue-liver interaction should be carefully controlled with relevance to defective caffeine/Indian spice metabolism in obese and diabetic individuals with NAFLD. Defective caffeine/Indian spice metabolism in these individuals can allow excessive transport to the brain with effects on brain cell mitochondria function and induction of Type 3 diabetes.



This work was supported by grants from Edith Cowan University, the McCusker Alzheimer’s Research Foundation and the National Health and Medical Research Council.

Ian James Martins

Fellow of International Agency for Standards and Ratings(IASR)

Advisory Board Member-Photon Journal

a Centre of Excellence in Alzheimer’s Disease Research and Care, Sarich Neuroscience Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, 8 Verdun Street, Nedlands, 6009, Australia

b School of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, 6009

c McCusker Alzheimer’s Research Foundation, Hollywood Medical Centre, 85 Monash Avenue, Suite 22, Nedlands, 6009, Australia

* Correspondence to:

Dr Ian Martins, School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Western Australia 6009, Australia.

KEY WORDS: immune; heart disease; diabetes; NAFLD; anti-aging; mitochondria; species; xenobiotics; body temperature; caffeine; Indian spices


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