In developed and developing world the global epidemic for chronic disease may include many species such as animals and man. Western diets and environmental changes disrupt anti-aging processes that determine species survival that are responsible for malfunction in genes with relevance to mitochondrial apoptosis and accelerated ageing. Science, medicine and biotherapy with relevance to genomic medicine need to consider autoimmune disease as critical factors that may determine species survival relevant to core body temperature and mitochondrial disease in animals and man. Identification of blood tests for mitochondrial defects for the cell’s power house have become of critical importance to the expected diabetes pandemic connected to various organ diseases.
Human survival and the immune system involve a network of cells, tissues and organs that work together to protect the body. An abnormal immune response to the body is called autoimmune disease and is now relevant to the global chronic disease epidemic that involves non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cardiovascular disease, diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases (Figure 1). The body when it involves an abnormal immune response does not stabilize the cell’s powerhouse called the mitochondria and the cell dies in individuals with various chronic diseases in the developing and developed world. Biotherapy to maintain the immune system require interventions that increase the consumption functional foods and bioactive molecules to prevent mitochondrial disease (Figure 1) involved in global chronic disease. In the developing world xenobiotics and bacterial lipopolysaccharides trigger the body’s mitochondria to die with the most sensitive cells in the body such as the brain cells (neurons) heart and kidney cells involved in chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease and neurodegeneration. Nutritional gene therapy and the prevention of toxic protein aggregation are essential to keep the cell alive and this information is now critical to humans and various species to prevent an abnormal immune response involved in accelerated aging and global chronic disease.
The gene-environment interaction now identifies a heat shock gene to be disrupted with effects on various other responsive genes that are sensitive to accelerated mitochondrial apoptosis. This heat shock gene determines species longevity with relevance to senescence and the universality of aging in man and various species. Critical breakthroughs in the fields of diet, pharmacology and immunology are essential for mitochondrial growth linked to body temperature and the prevention of accelerated ageing, diabetes and neurodegenerative disease (Figure 2). Research findings have reported that temperature variations in organisms have marked changes in the cell’s power house and metabolism with higher temperatures associated with increased ageing. The observation that diets with calorie restriction change core body temperature has led to explanations for differences in species longevity.
Biotherapeutics have become of importance to global chronic diseases such as diabetes to prevent the cell’s powerhouse mitochondria to die associated with uncontrolled immune reactions that determine treatment and disease progression. Nutritional interventions with caffeine consumption and Indian spices should be reassessed with relevance to interference with insulin therapy (Figure 3) that has become of major relevance to the global burden of disease progression. Caffeine /Indian spice intake to treat the defective adipose tissue-liver interaction should be carefully controlled with relevance to defective caffeine/Indian spice metabolism in obese and diabetic individuals with NAFLD. Defective caffeine/Indian spice metabolism in these individuals can allow excessive transport to the brain with effects on brain cell mitochondria function and induction of Type 3 diabetes.
This work was supported by grants from Edith Cowan University, the McCusker Alzheimer’s Research Foundation and the National Health and Medical Research Council.
Ian James Martins
Fellow of International Agency for Standards and Ratings(IASR)
Advisory Board Member-Photon Journal
a Centre of Excellence in Alzheimer’s Disease Research and Care, Sarich Neuroscience Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, 8 Verdun Street, Nedlands, 6009, Australia
b School of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, 6009
c McCusker Alzheimer’s Research Foundation, Hollywood Medical Centre, 85 Monash Avenue, Suite 22, Nedlands, 6009, Australia
* Correspondence to:
Dr Ian Martins, School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Western Australia 6009, Australia.
KEY WORDS: immune; heart disease; diabetes; NAFLD; anti-aging; mitochondria; species; xenobiotics; body temperature; caffeine; Indian spices
1. Martins IJ. Genomic Medicine and Acute Cardiovascular Disease Progression in Diabetes. International Journal of Medical Studies. 2018;3(1): 124-130.
2. Martins IJ. Appetite Control and Biotherapy in the Management of Autoimmune Induced Global Chronic Diseases. J ClinImmunol Res. 2018; 2(1): 1-4.
3. Martins IJ. Heat Shock Gene Inactivation and Protein Aggregation with Links to Chronic Diseases. Diseases. 2018, 6;39:1-5.
4. Martins IJ. Chapter 01. Increased Risk for Obesity and Diabetes with Neurodegeneration in Developing Countries. Top 10 Contribution on Genetics. Book Chapter. 2018. www.avid.science.com
5. Martins IJ. Regulation of Core Body Temperature and the Immune System Determines Species Longevity. Curr Updates Gerontol. (2017) 1: 6.1
6. Martins IJ. Antimicrobial activity inactivation and toxic immune reactions induce Epilepsy in human. J Med Discov (2017);2(4):jmd17040.
7. Martins IJ. Genomic Medicine and Endocrine Autoimmunity as Key to Mitochondrial Disease. Glob J EndocrinolMetab .2(2). GJEM.000534.2018.
8. Martins IJ (2017) Single Gene Inactivation with Implications to Diabetes and Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome. J ClinEpigenet. Vol. 3 No. 3:24.
9. Martins IJ. Nutrition Therapy Regulates Caffeine Metabolism with Relevance to NAFLD and Induction of Type 3 Diabetes. J Diabetes MetabDisord. 2017; 4: 019.
10. Martins IJ. Dietary Interventions Reverse Insulin and Synaptic Plasticity Defects Linking to Diabetes and NeurodegenerativeDiseases. Updates Nutr Disorders Ther. 2017; 1:4.1.
11. Martins IJ. Biotherapy and the Immune System in Ageing Science. Acta Scientific Nutritional Health 2.4 (2018): 29-31.
12. Martins IJ. Autoimmune disease and mitochondrial dysfunction in chronic diseases.Res Chron Dis (2017) 1(1).
13. Martins IJ. Bacterial Lipopolysaccharides and Neuron Toxicity in Neurodegenerative Diseases. NeurolNeurosurg. 2018; 1(1): 1-3.
14. Martins IJ. Heat shock protein aggregation and chronic kidney disease. Research on Chronic Diseases. 2018;2(1): 42-44.
15. Martins IJ. Diet, Drug and Inhibitor Therapy Prevent Toxic Protein Aggregation in Various Species. Acta Scientific Nutritional Health. 2(8);2018:01-03.
16. Martins IJ. Caffeine with Links to NAFLD and Accelerated Brain Aging. Chapter: Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease – Molecular Bases, Prevention and Treatment. InTech – Open Science Open Minds | InTechOpen. 2017.
17. Martins IJ. Indian Spices and Biotherapeutics in Health and Chronic Disease. Health. 2018; 10:374-380.
18. Martins IJ. Caffeine Consumption and Induction of Obesity in the Developed World. Ann ObesDisord. 2017; 2(1): 1018.
19. Martins IJ. Indian spices and Caffeine treatment for Obesity and Cardiovascular disease. Ann ClinEndocrinolMetabol. 2018; 2: 010-014
20. Martins IJ. Evaluation of diagnostic tests in human health and disease. J Clin Path Lab Med. 2018;2(1):13-15.
21. Martins IJ. Advances in Biomarkers and Insulin Therapy with Relevance to Reversal of Diabetes. Journal of Studies on Diabetes 2018; 1(1): 9-14.
22. Martins IJ. Sirtuin 1, a Diagnostic Protein Marker and its Relevance to Chronic Disease and Therapeutic Drug Interventions. EC Pharmacology and Toxicology6.4 (2018): 209-215.
23. Martins IJ. The Future of Biomarkers Tests and Genomic Medicine in Global Organ Disease. Arch Infect Dis Ther. 2017; 1(1): 1-6.
24. Martins IJ. Biomarker Tests and Ageing Science. Ageing SciMent Health Stud. 2017;1: 1–2.
25. Martins IJ. The Limitations of Food Intake and Biomarkers in the Prevention of Chronic Diseases. Nov Tech Nutri Food Sci. 1(1).NTNF.000502. 2017.